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J Venom Res. 2013 Nov 6;4:31-8. eCollection 2013.

Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom.

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Molecular Toxinology Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam, India.
Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore 570006, Karnataka, India.


This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity.


Naja kaouthia; haemostasis; myotoxicity; polyvalent antivenom; thromboelastometry


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