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PLoS One. 2013 Dec 12;8(12):e80579. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080579. eCollection 2013.

ESAT-6 (EsxA) and TB10.4 (EsxH) based vaccines for pre- and post-exposure tuberculosis vaccination.

Author information

1
TB Vaccine Research, Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Adjuvant Research, Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Veterinary Sciences Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.
5
Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

The ESX systems from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are responsible for the secretion of highly immunogenic proteins of key importance for bacterial survival and growth. The two prototypic proteins, ESAT-6 (EsxA from ESX-1) and TB10.4 (EsxH from ESX-3) share a lot of characteristics regarding genome organization, size, antigenic properties, and vaccine potential but the two molecules clearly have very different roles in bacterial physiology. To further investigate the role of ESAT-6 and TB10.4 as preventive and post-exposure tuberculosis vaccines, we evaluated four different fusion-protein vaccines; H1, H4, H56 and H28, that differ only in these two components. We found that all of these vaccines give rise to protection in a conventional prophylactic vaccination model. In contrast, only the ESAT-6-containing vaccines resulted in significant protection against reactivation, when administered post-exposure. This difference in post-exposure activity did not correlate with a difference in gene expression during infection or a differential magnitude or quality of the vaccine-specific CD4 T cells induced by ESAT-6 versus TB10.4-containing vaccines. The post-exposure effect of the ESAT-6 based vaccines was found to be influenced by the infectious load at the time-point of vaccination and was abolished in chronically infected animals with high bacterial loads at the onset of vaccination. Our data demonstrate that there are specific requirements for the immune system to target an already established tuberculosis infection and that ESAT-6 has a unique potential in post-exposure vaccination strategies.

PMID:
24349004
PMCID:
PMC3861245
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0080579
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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