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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:912031. doi: 10.1155/2013/912031. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Flavonoids Identified from Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling by Suppressing Activation of NF- κ B and MAPK in RAW 264.7 Cells.

Author information

1
Research Institute of Life Science, BK21 Plus Project, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Gazwa, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Physical Therapy, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759, Republic of Korea.
3
Korea National Animal Bioresources Bank Laboratory of Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Gazwa, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Nursing Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, School of Medicine, Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702, Republic of Korea.
6
Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used as traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, tumors, and diarrhea in Asia. Hence, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and determined the molecular mechanism of action of flavonoids isolated from Korean S. baicalensis G. in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to examine cytotoxicity of the flavonoids at various concentrations of 10, 40, 70, and 100 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells at these concentrations. Furthermore, the flavonoids decreased production of inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, to identify the differentially expressed proteins in RAW 264.7 cells of the control, LPS-treated, and flavonoid-treated groups, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were conducted. The identified proteins were involved in the inflammatory response and included PRKA anchor protein and heat shock protein 70 kD. These findings suggest that the flavonoids isolated from S. baicalensis G. might have anti-inflammatory effects that regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the NF- κ B signaling pathway via the MAPK signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

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