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J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2014 May;19(3):290-5. doi: 10.1177/1074248413513500. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

High-dose atorvastatin reloading before percutaneous coronary intervention increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression during the perioperative period.

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1Department of Cardiology, Ningbo First Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medcine of Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.



We investigated atorvastatin reloading effects on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count and inflammatory cytokine expression after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable angina pectoris who had previously received long-term statin treatments.


Patients with stable angina pectoris were treated with 80 mg atorvastatin 12 hours and 40 mg atorvastatin 2 hours before coronary angioplasty (n = 15) or preoperatively with 40 mg/d atorvastatin for 7 days (n = 15) or did not receive atorvastatin (n = 15). CD45-/133+/34+, CD45-/CD34+/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)+, and CD45-/CD144+/KDR+ EPCs in the peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry 1 hour before as well as 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after PCI. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hCRP), and troponin-I (TnI) serum concentrations were analyzed immediately prior to and 24 hours after PCI.


In the 40mg Atorvastatin and control groups, none of the analyzed EPC blood concentrations changed significantly from 1h before operation to 1h and 6 h postoperative values. In contrast, the number of circulating early differentiation stage EPCs CD45-/133+/34+ and CD45-/CD34+/ KDR+ raised significantly from 1 h preoperative values (57.3±9.3; 57.3 ± 10.7) to 1 h postoperative ((74.4 ± 11.4; 78.8 ± 16.2), (p < 0.05)) and 6 h postoperative ((93 ± 16.9; 99.7 ± 11.9), (p < 0.05)) concentrations after coronary angioplasty in the 80mg Atorvastatin medication patients. In the control group, the sICAM-1 (174.55 ± 38.91 vs 204.11 ± 58.24) and hCRP (1.89 ± 1.93 vs 9.0 ± 11.1) serum concentrations at 24 hours after PCI were significantly elevated (P < .05) compared to preoperative values, whereas the increases in the 2 groups treated with atorvastatin were not significant. In addition, the rise in serum TnI concentration level from pre- to postoperative in the 80-mg (0.02 ± 0.02 vs 0.09 ± 0.08) and the 40-mg (0.01 ± 0.03 vs 1.2 ± 2.59) reloading groups was less than that of the controls (0.01 ± 0.02 vs 1.75 ± 3.09) (p < 0.05).


Our results suggested that high-dose atorvastatin application before PCI triggered early EPC circulation. Furthermore, postoperative inflammatory cytokine sICAM-1 as well as hCRP serum levels were reduced, while postinterventional myocardial injury marker TnI elevations were inversely correlated with statin reloadings.


arthrosclerosis; endothelial progenitor cells; percutaneous coronary intervention

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