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Biomaterials. 2014 Mar;35(8):2477-87. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.11.044. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Injectable, porous, and cell-responsive gelatin cryogels.

Author information

1
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
2
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
3
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: mooneyd@seas.harvard.edu.

Abstract

The performance of biomaterials-based therapies can be hindered by complications associated with surgical implant, motivating the development of materials systems that allow minimally invasive introduction into the host. In this study, we created cell-adhesive and degradable gelatin scaffolds that could be injected through a conventional needle while maintaining a predefined geometry and architecture. These scaffolds supported attachment, proliferation, and survival of cells in vitro and could be degraded by recombinant matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. Prefabricated gelatin cryogels rapidly resumed their original shape when injected subcutaneously into mice and elicited only a minor host response following injection. Controlled release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from gelatin cryogels resulted in complete infiltration of the scaffold by immune cells and promoted matrix metalloproteinase production leading to cell-mediated degradation of the cryogel matrix. These findings suggest that gelatin cryogels could serve as a cell-responsive platform for biomaterial-based therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Cryogel; Degradable; Gelatin; Injectable; Matrix metalloproteinase

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