Send to

Choose Destination
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013 Dec 17;11:116. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-11-116.

Profiles of cytokines secreted by isolated human endometrial cells under the influence of chorionic gonadotropin during the window of embryo implantation.

Author information

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.



Several studies have indicated that human pre-implantation embryo-derived chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may influence the implantation process by its action on human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Despite reports indicating that hCG acts on these cells to affect the production of several cytokines and growth factors (e.g., MIF, IGF-I, VEGF, LIF, IL-11, GMCSF, CXL10 and FGF2), our understanding of the integral influence of hCG on paracrine interactions between endometrial stromal and epithelial cells during implantation is very limited.


In the present study, we examined the profile of 48 cytokines in the conditioned media of primary cell cultures of human implantation stage endometrium. Endometrial epithelial cells (group 1; n = 20), stromal cells (group 2; n = 20), and epithelial plus stromal cells (group 3; n = 20) obtained from mid-secretory stage endometrial samples (n = 60) were grown on collagen and exposed to different doses (0, 1, 10 and 100 IU/ml) of rhCG for 24 h in vitro. Immunochemical and qRT-PCR methods were used to determine cytokine profiles. Enrichment and process networks analyses were implemented using a list of cytokines showing differential secretion in response to hCG.


Under basal conditions, endometrial epithelial and stromal cells exhibited cell type-specific profiles of secreted cytokines. Administration of hCG (100 IU) resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) different cytokine secretion profiles indicative of macropinocytic transport (HGF, MCSF) in epithelial cells, signal transduction (CCL4, FGF2, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, VEGF) in stromal cells, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (FGF2, HGF, IL-1b, TNF) in mixed cells. Overall, the administration of hCG affected cytokines involved in the immune response, chemotaxis, inflammatory changes, proliferation, cell adhesion and apoptosis.


CG can influence the function of the endometrium during blastocyst implantation via its differential action on endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. CG may also affect complex paracrine processes in the different endometrial cell types.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center