Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(3):1381-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00327-13. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

New dosing strategies for an old antibiotic: pharmacodynamics of front-loaded regimens of colistin at simulated pharmacokinetics in patients with kidney or liver disease.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Abstract

Increasing evidence suggests that colistin monotherapy is suboptimal at currently recommended doses. We hypothesized that front-loading provides an improved dosing strategy for polymyxin antibiotics to maximize killing and minimize total exposure. Here, we utilized an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to examine the impact of front-loaded colistin regimens against a high bacterial density (10(8) CFU/ml) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pharmacokinetics were simulated for patients with hepatic (half-life [t1/2] of 3.2 h) or renal (t1/2 of 14.8 h) disease. Front-loaded regimens (n=5) demonstrated improvement in bacterial killing, with reduced overall free drug areas under the concentration-time curve (fAUC) compared to those with traditional dosing regimens (n=14) with various dosing frequencies (every 12 h [q12h] and q24h). In the renal failure simulations, front-loaded regimens at lower exposures (fAUC of 143 mg · h/liter) obtained killing activity similar to that of traditional regimens (fAUC of 268 mg · h/liter), with an ∼97% reduction in the area under the viable count curve over 48 h. In hepatic failure simulations, front-loaded regimens yielded rapid initial killing by up to 7 log10 within 2 h, but considerable regrowth occurred for both front-loaded and traditional regimens. No regimen eradicated the high bacterial inoculum of P. aeruginosa. The current study, which utilizes an in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model, demonstrates the potential benefits of front-loading strategies for polymyxins simulating differential pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic and renal failure at a range of doses. Our findings may have important clinical implications, as front-loading polymyxins as a part of a combination regimen may be a viable strategy for aggressive treatment of high-bacterial-burden infections.

PMID:
24342636
PMCID:
PMC3957851
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.00327-13
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center