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Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2013 Oct;16(4):590-2. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.120480.

Facio-brachio-crural dystonic episodes and drop attacks due to leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis in two elderly Indian women.

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Department of Neurology, Lourdes Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India.


Two women in their 60's are presented to us with sudden falls of acute onset. Prolonged observation revealed a gradually evolving syndrome of paroxysmal right sided faciobrachial dystonic (FBD) posturing lasting seconds. Both patients went on to develop hyponatremia, following which the episodes worsened and appeared on both sides. In both cases, prolonged electroencephalography monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging brain were normal and the response to conventional anticonvulsants was poor. One patient improved spontaneously over 6 months. The 2(nd) patient developed an amnestic syndrome and was started on intravenous methylprednisolone with which her movement disorder abated. Her amnestic syndrome improved and she was discharged on oral steroids. Both patients tested positive for leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGi1) antibodies. We present the first case reports of FBD episodes and drop attacks owing to LGi1 encephalitis from India and review the relevant literature pertinent to the subject.


Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 antibodies; drop attacks; faciobrachial dystonic seizures; leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis; paroxysmal non-kinesogenic dystonia

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