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J Biol Chem. 2014 Jan 24;289(4):2250-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.523654. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

A role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis.

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From the Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Orlando, Florida 32827.


The energy demands of the adult mammalian heart are met largely by ATP generated via oxidation of fatty acids in a high capacity mitochondrial system. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1)-α and -β serve as inducible transcriptional coregulators of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Whether PGC-1 plays a role in the regulation of mitochondrial structure is unknown. In this study, mice with combined deficiency of PGC-1α and PGC-1β (PGC-1αβ(-/-)) in adult heart were analyzed. PGC-1αβ(-/-) hearts exhibited a distinctive mitochondrial cristae-stacking abnormality suggestive of a phospholipid abnormality as has been described in humans with genetic defects in cardiolipin (CL) synthesis (Barth syndrome). A subset of molecular species, containing n-3 polyunsaturated species in the CL, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine profiles, was reduced in PGC-1αβ-deficient hearts. Gene expression profiling of PGC-1αβ(-/-) hearts revealed reduced expression of the gene encoding CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 (Cds1), an enzyme that catalyzes the proximal step in CL biosynthesis. Cds1 gene promoter-reporter cotransfection experiments and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that PGC-1α coregulates estrogen-related receptors to activate the transcription of the Cds1 gene. We conclude that the PGC-1/estrogen-related receptor axis coordinately regulates metabolic and membrane structural programs relevant to the maintenance of high capacity mitochondrial function in heart.


Cardiac Metabolism; Cardiolipin; Gene Regulation; Heart; Lipidomics; Mitochondria; Phospholipids; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; Transcriptional Coregulators

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