Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;71(2):149-57. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3080.

Association between traumatic brain injury and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in active-duty Marines.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California2Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, California.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 5Division of Behavioral Sciences, Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome, Boston, Massachusetts 6Department of Psychology, Veterans Affairs B.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California2Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, California7Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California.
5
Department of Behavioral Science and Epidemiology, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California.
6
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Translational Research Institute, San Diego, California.
7
Boston Veterans Affairs Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been difficult to determine because of the prevalence of comorbid conditions, overlapping symptoms, and cross-sectional samples.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the extent to which self-reported predeployment and deployment-related TBI confers increased risk of PTSD when accounting for combat intensity and predeployment mental health symptoms.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

As part of the prospective, longitudinal Marine Resiliency Study (June 2008 to May 2012), structured clinical interviews and self-report assessments were administered approximately 1 month before a 7-month deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and again 3 to 6 months after deployment. The study was conducted at training areas on a Marine Corps base in southern California or at Veterans Affairs San Diego Medical Center. Participants for the final analytic sample were 1648 active-duty Marine and Navy servicemen who completed predeployment and postdeployment assessments. Reasons for exclusions were nondeployment (n = 34), missing data (n = 181), and rank of noncommissioned and commissioned officers (n = 66).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The primary outcome was the total score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) 3 months after deployment.

RESULTS:

At the predeployment assessment, 56.8% of the participants reported prior TBI; at postdeployment assessment, 19.8% reported sustaining TBI between predeployment and postdeployment assessments (ie, deployment-related TBI). Approximately 87.2% of deployment-related TBIs were mild; 250 of 287 participants (87.1%) who reported posttraumatic amnesia reported less than 24 hours of posttraumatic amnesia (37 reported ≥ 24 hours), and 111 of 117 of those who lost consciousness (94.9%) reported less than 30 minutes of unconsciousness. Predeployment CAPS score and combat intensity score raised predicted 3-month postdeployment CAPS scores by factors of 1.02 (P < .001; 95% CI, 1.02-1.02) and 1.02 (P < .001; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02) per unit increase, respectively. Deployment-related mild TBI raised predicted CAPS scores by a factor of 1.23 (P < .001; 95% CI, 1.11-1.36), and moderate/severe TBI raised predicted scores by a factor of 1.71 (P < .001; 95% CI, 1.37-2.12). Probability of PTSD was highest for participants with severe predeployment symptoms, high combat intensity, and deployment-related TBI. Traumatic brain injury doubled or nearly doubled the PTSD rates for participants with less severe predeployment PTSD symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Even when accounting for predeployment symptoms, prior TBI, and combat intensity, TBI during the most recent deployment is the strongest predictor of postdeployment PTSD symptoms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California
    Loading ...
    Support Center