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Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 Jan;21(1):64-72. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2735. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Non-CG methylation patterns shape the epigenetic landscape in Arabidopsis.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
2
Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
3
1] Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [2].
4
1] Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [2] Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Abstract

DNA methylation occurs in CG and non-CG sequence contexts. Non-CG methylation is abundant in plants and is mediated by CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) and DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) proteins; however, its roles remain poorly understood. Here we characterize the roles of non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that a poorly characterized methyltransferase, CMT2, is a functional methyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. CMT2 preferentially binds histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) dimethylation and methylates non-CG cytosines that are regulated by H3K9 methylation. We revealed the contributions and redundancies between each non-CG methyltransferase in DNA methylation patterning and in regulating transcription. We also demonstrate extensive dependencies of small-RNA accumulation and H3K9 methylation patterning on non-CG methylation, suggesting self-reinforcing mechanisms between these epigenetic factors. The results suggest that non-CG methylation patterns are critical in shaping the landscapes of histone modification and small noncoding RNA.

PMID:
24336224
PMCID:
PMC4103798
DOI:
10.1038/nsmb.2735
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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