Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Jan;33 Suppl 2:S140-51. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000082.

Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on prevention of pneumonia.

Author information

1
From the *Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases; †Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; ‡International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; §Westat Inc., Rockville, MD; and ¶Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age globally. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule.

METHODS:

We conducted a systematic review of studies published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) documenting the effect of PCV dosing schedules on clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema among children of ages targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2- and 3-dose schedules were included. Percent change of pneumonia incidence rates from baseline to most recent year post-PCV introduction was calculated.

RESULTS:

We identified 42 primary citations that evaluated PCV schedules and pneumonia. Thirty-seven (88%) were from North America, Europe or Australia; 37 (88%) evaluated PCV7 and 1 (2%) PCV10. Two studies (both observational) compared multiple schedules within the study. We found evidence of reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia incidence for all schedules, including 2+1 (1 nonrandomized trial, 5 observational studies), 3+0 (5 randomized trials, 2 observational studies) and 3+1 (5 clinical trials, 24 observational studies) schedules. The magnitude of disease impact did not differ among schedules. Evidence for impact on pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema varied.

CONCLUSIONS:

All schedules (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1) reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Quantifying differences in pneumonia disease impact between schedules was difficult due to heterogeneity among studies in design, case definition and population. These findings support World Health Organization recommendations for 3-dose schedules administered as either 3+0 or 2+1 regimens. Pneumonia impact data are still needed on expanded serotype PCV products, developing country settings and the role for a booster dose.

PMID:
24336056
PMCID:
PMC3944478
DOI:
10.1097/INF.0000000000000082
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center