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Kidney Int. 2014 Jun;85(6):1290-302. doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.491. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.

Author information

1
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
2
1] Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
3
1] Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore [2] Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore [3] Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease is an emerging health problem worldwide. The eye shares striking structural, developmental, and genetic pathways with the kidney, suggesting that kidney disease and ocular disease may be closely linked. A growing number of studies have found associations of chronic kidney disease with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataract. In addition, retinal microvascular parameters have been shown to be predictive of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease shares common vascular risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity, and pathogenetic mechanisms including inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular dysfunction, with ocular diseases supporting the 'Common Soil Hypothesis.' In this review, we present major epidemiological evidence for these associations and explore underlying pathogenic mechanisms and common risk factors for kidney and ocular disease. Understanding the link between kidney and ocular disease can lead to the development of new treatment and screening strategies for both diseases.

PMID:
24336029
DOI:
10.1038/ki.2013.491
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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