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J Epidemiol. 2014;24(1):60-6. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Effect of maternal smoking cessation before and during early pregnancy on fetal and childhood growth.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan.

METHODS:

Our study included children born between 1991 and 2006 and their mothers. Using a questionnaire, maternal smoking status was recorded at pregnancy. The anthropometric data of the children were collected during a medical check-up at age 3 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis stratified by sex.

RESULTS:

In total, 2663 mothers reported their smoking status during early pregnancy, and data were collected from 2230 (83.7%) children at age 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (approximately 120-150 g). Body mass index at age 3 years was significantly higher among boys born to smoking mothers than among boys born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with overweight at age 3 years among boys (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.03-5.4). However, among women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy, there was no increase in the risks of a small for gestational age birth or childhood overweight at age 3 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Children born to mothers who stopped smoking before or during early pregnancy had appropriate fetal and childhood growth.

PMID:
24335086
PMCID:
PMC3872526
DOI:
10.2188/jea.je20130083
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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