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J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Dec;9(4):426-32.

The lack of effect of inoculation with equine influenza vaccine on theophylline pharmacokinetics in the horse.


Several studies conducted during the past few years have shown that the pharmacokinetics of a variety of drugs may be altered following viral infection or vaccination. The elimination of drugs which are extensively metabolized, such as theophylline, may be prolonged, especially following exposure to RNA viruses such as Type A influenza or similar orthomyxoviruses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccination of horses with equine influenza virus affected pharmacokinetic parameters describing the distribution and elimination of intravenously administered theophylline. Three thoroughbred horses and three ponies were vaccinated with a trivalent vaccine containing inactivated strains of A/Equi 1 (Prague), A/Equi 2 (Miami) and A/Equi 2 (Kentucky 81). Antibody titre, serum interferon concentrations, and the pharmacokinetic parameters t1/2 beta, Vc, Vd(ss), Vd(area) and ClB were measured at various intervals after vaccination. Antibody titre increased substantially in only two animals, while plasma interferon was detectable in low concentrations in four subjects. There was no significant change in any parameter describing the pharmacokinetics of theophylline when measured 2, 6, or 12 days after vaccination. It is suggested that the failure of vaccination to substantially increase plasma interferon concentrations, and thereby alter theophylline elimination, was related to the use of an inactivated viral vaccine, the only type available for vaccination of horses against infection with equine influenza. Regular use of such vaccines, as is required by most Racing Authorities, is therefore unlikely to affect drug withdrawal times.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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