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Int J Food Microbiol. 2014 Feb 3;171:94-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.11.018. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

Author information

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, United States. Electronic address: david.kingsley@ars.usda.gov.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, United States.
3
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, United States.
4
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, United States.

Abstract

The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by <1 log₁₀. Hydrogen peroxide (4%) treatment of up to 60 min resulted in minimal binding reduction (~0.1 log₁₀) suggesting that H₂O₂ is not a good liquid sanitizer for HuNoV. Overall this study suggests that HuNoV is remarkably resistant to several commonly used disinfectants and advocates for the use of chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible.

KEYWORDS:

Chlorine; Chlorine dioxide; Human norovirus; Hydrogen peroxide; Peroxyacetic acid; Trisodium phosphate

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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