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Sci Total Environ. 2014 Feb 15;472:730-40. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.028. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects.

Author information

1
CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege, Belgium. Electronic address: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be.
2
Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium. Electronic address: gudrun.koppen@vito.be.
3
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be.
4
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be.
5
Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium. Electronic address: eva.govarts@vito.be.
6
Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire - Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons, Belgium. Electronic address: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be.
7
Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen, Belgium. Electronic address: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be.
8
Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be.
9
Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be.
10
University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be.
11
Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: marike.kolossa@uba.de.
12
Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de.
13
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address: angerer@ipa-dguv.de.
14
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address: koch@ipa-dguv.de.
15
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address: bt.schindler@googlemail.com.
16
Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Ctra. Majadahonda - Pozuelo, Km. 2, 28220, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: castano@isciii.es.
17
Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Ctra. Majadahonda - Pozuelo, Km. 2, 28220, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: m.esteban@isciii.es.
18
Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium. Electronic address: greet.schoeters@vito.be.
19
Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium. Electronic address: elly.denhond@vito.be.
20
Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Ovnair.Sepai@phe.gov.uk.
21
Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Karen.Exley@phe.gov.uk.
22
Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: milena.horvat@ijs.si.
23
Environmental Health Science International, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: lb@ehsi.eu.
24
University of Copenhagen, Department of Public Health, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1353 København, Denmark. Electronic address: like@sund.ku.dk.
25
BiPRO GmbH, Grauertstrasse 12, 81545 Munich, Germany. Electronic address: reinhard.joas@bipro.de.
26
BiPRO GmbH, Grauertstrasse 12, 81545 Munich, Germany. Electronic address: anke.joas@bipro.de.
27
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: Joris.VanLoco@wiv-isp.be.
28
CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege, Belgium. Electronic address: c.charlier@chu.ulg.ac.be.

Abstract

A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6-11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium; Europe; Hair; Human biomonitoring; Mercury; Urine

PMID:
24333995
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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