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Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Apr 15;54:603-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2013.11.039. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring.

Author information

1
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
2
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, D-52428 Jülich, Germany.
3
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
4
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Electrozyme LLC, Executive Square (Suite 485), San Diego, CA 92037, USA.
5
Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.
6
Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, D-52428 Jülich, Germany.
7
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address: josephwang@ucsd.edu.

Abstract

This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration. Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mechanical deformations experienced by the human epidermis. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concentration was transmitted wirelessly via a body-worn transceiver from the sodium tattoo sensor to a notebook while the subjects perspired on a stationary cycle. The favorable analytical performance along with the wearable nature of the wireless transceiver makes the new epidermal potentiometric sensing system attractive for continuous monitoring the sodium dynamics in human perspiration during diverse activities relevant to the healthcare, fitness, military, healthcare and skin-care domains.

KEYWORDS:

Epidermal electronics; Ion selective electrode; Screen printing; Sweat sodium; Wireless electronics

PMID:
24333582
DOI:
10.1016/j.bios.2013.11.039
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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