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Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Apr 15;54:585-97. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2013.10.075. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.

Author information

1
The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China; Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China.
2
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02139, MA, USA.
3
Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China; Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China.
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
5
Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China. Electronic address: tjlu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
6
The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China; Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P.R. China. Electronic address: fengxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.

KEYWORDS:

Microfluidics; Paper-based diagnostics; Point-of-care (POC)

PMID:
24333570
DOI:
10.1016/j.bios.2013.10.075
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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