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J Mol Biol. 2014 Mar 20;426(6):1265-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.12.005. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

TRIMmunity: the roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: ricardo.rajsbaum@mssm.edu.
2
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.
3
Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Doktor-Bohr-Gasse 9/4, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, by sub-cellular localization and in cell-type-specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research.

KEYWORDS:

E3-ubiquitin ligase; antiviral response; innate immunity; restriction factors; tripartite motif

PMID:
24333484
PMCID:
PMC3945521
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmb.2013.12.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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