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Cell Rep. 2013 Dec 26;5(6):1564-75. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.11.022. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Mitochondria coordinate sites of axon branching through localized intra-axonal protein synthesis.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.
2
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19210, USA.
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, 715 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
4
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Electronic address: gianluca.gallo@temple.edu.

Abstract

The branching of axons is a fundamental aspect of nervous system development and neuroplasticity. We report that branching of sensory axons in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) occurs at sites populated by stalled mitochondria. Translational machinery targets to presumptive branching sites, followed by recruitment of mitochondria to these sites. The mitochondria promote branching through ATP generation and the determination of localized hot spots of active axonal mRNA translation, which contribute to actin-dependent aspects of branching. In contrast, mitochondria do not have a role in the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton during NGF-induced branching. Collectively, these observations indicate that sensory axons exhibit multiple potential sites of translation, defined by presence of translational machinery, but active translation occurs following the stalling and respiration of mitochondria at these potential sites of translation. This study reveals a local role for axonal mitochondria in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and axonal mRNA translation underlying branching.

PMID:
24332852
PMCID:
PMC3947524
DOI:
10.1016/j.celrep.2013.11.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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