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J Biomech. 2014 Jun 27;47(9):2102-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.10.059. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Biomechanical adaptation of the bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint as a consequence of disease.

Author information

1
Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, United States.
2
Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
3
Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, United States. Electronic address: sunita.ho@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

In this study, an in vivo ligature-induced periodontitis rat model was used to investigate temporal changes to the solid and fluid phases of the joint by correlating shifts in joint biomechanics to adaptive changes in soft and hard tissue morphology and functional space. After 6 and 12 weeks of ligation, coronal regions showed a significant decrease in alveolar crest height, increased expression of TNF-α, and degradation of attachment fibers as indicated by decreased collagen birefringence. Cyclical compression to peak loads of 5-15N at speeds of 0.2-2.0mm/min followed by load relaxation tests showed decreased stiffness and reactionary load rate values, load relaxation, and load recoverability, of ligated joints. Shifts in joint stiffness and reactionary load rate increased with time while shifts in joint relaxation and recoverability decreased between control and ligated groups, complementing measurements of increased tooth displacement as evaluated through digital image correlation. Shifts in functional space between control and ligated joints were significantly increased at the interradicular (Δ10-25μm) and distal coronal (Δ20-45μm) regions. Histology revealed time-dependent increases in nuclei elongation within PDL cells and collagen fiber alignment, uncrimping, and directionality, in 12-week ligated joints compared to random orientation in 6-week ligated joints and to controls. We propose that altered strains from tooth hypermobility could cause varying degrees of solid-to-fluid compaction, alter dampening characteristics of the joint, and potentiate increased adaptation at the risk of joint failure.

KEYWORDS:

Biomechanical adaptation; Biomechanics; Bone–PDL–tooth fibrous joint; Periodontal ligament; Periodontitis; Stiffness

PMID:
24332618
PMCID:
PMC4021007
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.10.059
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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