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Vaccine. 2013 Dec 29;31 Suppl 5:F47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.066.

Infrastructure requirements for human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Early Detection and Prevention Section and Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO-IARC), Lyon, France. Electronic address:
Oncology and Pathological Studies Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.
Groupe de Recherche en Santé, Faculté Saint-Jean, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo.
Department Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town/Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.


The availability of both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and alternative screening tests has greatly improved the prospects of cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The inclusion of HPV vaccine in the portfolio of new vaccines offered by the Gobal Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to GAVI-eligible countries has vastly improved the chances of introducing HPV vaccination. Further investments to improve vaccine storage, distribution and delivery infrastructure and human resources of the Extended Programme of Immunization will substantially contribute to the faster introduction of HPV vaccination in SSA countries through both school- and campaign-based approaches. Alternative methods to cytology for the prevention of cervical cancer through the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer precursors have been extensively evaluated in the past 15 years, in Africa as well as in other low-resource settings. Visual inspection with 3-5% dilute acetic acid (VIA) and HPV testing are the two alternative screening methods that have been most studied, in both cross-sectional and randomised clinical trials. VIA is particularly suitable to low-resource settings; however, its efficacy in reducing cervical cancer is likely to be significantly lower than HPV testing. The introduction of VIA screening programmes will help develop the infrastructure that will, in turn, facilitate the introduction of affordable HPV testing in future. Links with the existing HIV/AIDS control programmes is another strategy to improve the infrastructure and screening services in SSA. Infrastructural requirements for an integrated approach aiming to vaccinate single-year cohorts of girls in the 9-13 years age-range and to screen women over 30 years of age using VIA or affordable rapid HPV tests are outlined in this manuscript. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.


HPV DNA testing; HPV vaccination; Primary prevention; Secondary prevention; Sub-Saharan Africa; VIA

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