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Vaccine. 2013 Dec 17;32(1):165-79. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.062.

Standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae: updated recommendations from the World Health Organization Pneumococcal Carriage Working Group.

Author information

1
Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Centre for International Child Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: catherine.satzke@mcri.edu.au.
2
Microbiology Department, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Kingdom of Cambodia; Centre for Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
3
Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
4
MRC/Wits Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
5
Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia.
6
Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia.
7
Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
8
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
9
Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
10
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology of Human Pathogens, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.
11
KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
12
Vaccine Programme Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
13
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Abstract

In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a working group and published a set of standard methods for studies measuring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). The working group recently reconvened under the auspices of the WHO and updated the consensus standard methods. These methods describe the collection, transport and storage of nasopharyngeal samples, as well as provide recommendations for the identification and serotyping of pneumococci using culture and non-culture based approaches. We outline the consensus position of the working group, the evidence supporting this position, areas worthy of future research, and the epidemiological role of carriage studies. Adherence to these methods will reduce variability in the conduct of pneumococcal carriage studies undertaken in the context of pneumococcal vaccine trials, implementation studies, and epidemiology studies more generally so variability in methodology does not confound the interpretation of study findings.

KEYWORDS:

Carriage; Colonization; Nasopharynx; Pneumococcus

PMID:
24331112
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.062
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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