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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jul;69(7):779-89. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt190. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Glycans are a novel biomarker of chronological and biological ages.

Author information

1
Genos Glycobiology Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia.
2
Department of Twins Research and Genetic Epidemiology, Kings College London, UK.
3
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
4
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia.
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Croatia.
6
Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh Medical School, UK.
7
MRCHGU, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.
8
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.
9
University of Osijek School of Medicine, Croatia.
10
Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
11
Genos Glycobiology Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia. Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia. glauc@pharma.hr.

Abstract

Fine structural details of glycans attached to the conserved N-glycosylation site significantly not only affect function of individual immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules but also mediate inflammation at the systemic level. By analyzing IgG glycosylation in 5,117 individuals from four European populations, we have revealed very complex patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation with age. Several IgG glycans (including FA2B, FA2G2, and FA2BG2) changed considerably with age and the combination of these three glycans can explain up to 58% of variance in chronological age, significantly more than other markers of biological age like telomere lengths. The remaining variance in these glycans strongly correlated with physiological parameters associated with biological age. Thus, IgG glycosylation appears to be closely linked with both chronological and biological ages. Considering the important role of IgG glycans in inflammation, and because the observed changes with age promote inflammation, changes in IgG glycosylation also seem to represent a factor contributing to aging.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:

Glycosylation is the key posttranslational mechanism that regulates function of immunoglobulins, with multiple systemic repercussions to the immune system. Our study of IgG glycosylation in 5,117 individuals from four European populations has revealed very extensive and complex changes in IgG glycosylation with age. The combined index composed of only three glycans explained up to 58% of variance in age, considerably more than other biomarkers of age like telomere lengths. The remaining variance in these glycans strongly correlated with physiological parameters associated with biological age; thus, IgG glycosylation appears to be closely linked with both chronological and biological ages. The ability to measure human biological aging using molecular profiling has practical applications for diverse fields such as disease prevention and treatment, or forensics.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Glycome; Glycosylation; Immunoglobulin G; Inflammation.

Comment in

PMID:
24325898
PMCID:
PMC4049143
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/glt190
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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