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PLoS One. 2013 Dec 4;8(12):e76963. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076963. eCollection 2013.

Impact of simulated microgravity on oligodendrocyte development: implications for central nervous system repair.

Author information

1
Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Abstract

We have recently established a culture system to study the impact of simulated microgravity on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) development. We subjected mouse and human OPCs to a short exposure of simulated microgravity produced by a 3D-Clinostat robot. Our results demonstrate that rodent and human OPCs display enhanced and sustained proliferation when exposed to simulated microgravity as assessed by several parameters, including a decrease in the cell cycle time. Additionally, OPC migration was examined in vitro using time-lapse imaging of cultured OPCs. Our results indicated that OPCs migrate to a greater extent after stimulated microgravity than in normal conditions, and this enhanced motility was associated with OPC morphological changes. The lack of normal gravity resulted in a significant increase in the migration speed of mouse and human OPCs and we found that the average leading process in migrating bipolar OPCs was significantly longer in microgravity treated cells than in controls, demonstrating that during OPC migration the lack of gravity promotes leading process extension, an essential step in the process of OPC migration. Finally, we tested the effect of simulated microgravity on OPC differentiation. Our data showed that the expression of mature oligodendrocyte markers was significantly delayed in microgravity treated OPCs. Under conditions where OPCs were allowed to progress in the lineage, simulated microgravity decreased the proportion of cells that expressed mature markers, such as CC1 and MBP, with a concomitant increased number of cells that retained immature oligodendrocyte markers such as Sox2 and NG2. Development of methodologies aimed at enhancing the number of OPCs and their ability to progress on the oligodendrocyte lineage is of great value for treatment of demyelinating disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the gravitational modulation of oligodendrocyte intrinsic plasticity to increase their progenies.

PMID:
24324574
PMCID:
PMC3850904
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0076963
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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