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Biol Psychol. 2014 Jan;95:108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.11.013. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: the long and winding road.

Author information

1
Research Institute Brainclinics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Utrecht University, Dept. Experimental Psychology, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: martijn@brainclinics.com.
2
Dept. of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; Heckscher-Klinikum, M√ľnchen, Germany.
3
University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Abstract

Among the clinical applications of neurofeedback, most research has been conducted in ADHD. As an introduction a short overview of the general history of neurofeedback will be given, while the main part of the paper deals with a review of the current state of neurofeedback in ADHD. A meta-analysis on neurofeedback from 2009 found large effect sizes for inattention and impulsivity and medium effects sizes for hyperactivity. Since 2009 several new studies, including 4 placebo-controlled studies, have been published. These latest studies are reviewed and discussed in more detail. The review focuses on studies employing (1) semi-active, (2) active, and (3) placebo-control groups. The assessment of specificity of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD is discussed and it is concluded that standard protocols such as theta/beta, SMR and slow cortical potentials neurofeedback are well investigated and have demonstrated specificity. The paper ends with an outlook on future questions and tasks. It is concluded that future controlled clinical trials should, in a next step, focus on such known protocols, and be designed along the lines of learning theory.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; EEG biofeedback; Neurofeedback; Review

PMID:
24321363
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.11.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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