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Neuromodulation. 2014 Jul;17(5):490-6; discussion 496. doi: 10.1111/ner.12136. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Pudendal nerve stimulation and block by a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator in cats.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The study aims to determine the functionality of a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator designed for stimulation and block of the pudendal nerve.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In five cats under α-chloralose anesthesia, the stimulator was implanted underneath the skin on the left side in the lower back along the sacral spine. Two tripolar cuff electrodes were implanted bilaterally on the pudendal nerves in addition to one bipolar cuff electrode that was implanted on the left side central to the tripolar cuff electrode. The stimulator provided high-frequency (5-20 kHz) biphasic stimulation waveforms to the two tripolar electrodes and low-frequency (1-100 Hz) rectangular pulses to the bipolar electrode. Bladder and urethral pressures were measured to determine the effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or block.

RESULTS:

The maximal (70-100 cmH2O) urethral pressure generated by 20-Hz PNS applied via the bipolar electrode was completely eliminated by the pudendal nerve block induced by the high-frequency stimulation (6-15 kHz, 6-10 V) applied via the two tripolar electrodes. In a partially filled bladder, 20-30 Hz PNS (2-8 V, 0.2 ms) but not 5 Hz stimulation applied via the bipolar electrode elicited a large sustained bladder contraction (45.9 ± 13.4 to 52.0 ± 22 cmH2O). During cystometry, the 5 Hz PNS significantly (p < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 176.5 ± 27.1% of control capacity.

CONCLUSIONS:

The wireless-controlled implantable stimulator successfully generated the required waveforms for stimulation and block of pudendal nerve, which will be useful for restoring bladder functions after spinal cord injury.

KEYWORDS:

Block; cat; pudendal nerve; spinal cord injury; stimulation

PMID:
24320615
PMCID:
PMC4050036
DOI:
10.1111/ner.12136
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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