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J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Aug;94(10):2040-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6522. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

The effect of macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits on their sensory properties and on hedonic liking of older people.

Author information

1
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AP, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Under-nutrition in older adults is widespread. Oral nutritional supplement beverages (ONS) are prescribed, yet consumption by older people is often insufficient. A variety of supplement formats may improve nutrient intake. This study developed protein and micro-nutrient fortified biscuits and evaluated their sensory attributes and liking by older people. Two micro-nutrient strategies were taken, to match typical ONS and to customise to the needs of older people.

RESULTS:

Oat biscuits and gluten-free biscuits developed contained over 12% protein and over 460 kcal 100 g(-1). Two small (40 g) biscuits developed to match ONS provided approximately 40% of an ONS portion of micro-nutrients and 60% of macro-nutrients; however, the portion size was considered realistic whereas the average ONS portion (200 mL) is excessive. Biscuits developed to the needs of older adults provided, on average, 18% of the reference nutrient intake of targeted micro-nutrients. Sensory characteristics were similar between biscuits with and without micro-nutrient fortification, leading to no differences in liking. Fortified oat biscuits were less liked than commercial oat biscuits, partly attributed to flavour imparted by whey protein fortification.

CONCLUSION:

Macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits could provide an alternative fortified snack to help alleviate malnutrition in older adults.

KEYWORDS:

biscuits; cookies; nutrient fortification; older people; sensory; supplement

PMID:
24318046
PMCID:
PMC4491354
DOI:
10.1002/jsfa.6522
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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