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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014 Mar;20(3):361-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.026. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Cytokine and chemokine patterns across 100 days after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.

Author information

1
Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address: jdicarlo@chla.usc.edu.
2
Department of Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
3
Department of Hematology/Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
4
Pediatric Critical Care, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.
5
Department of Bone Marrow Transplant, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
6
Human Immune Monitoring Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Abstract

We mapped the cytokine response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by assaying 51 cytokines and chemokines each week for 100 days in 51 children receiving allogeneic (n = 44) or autologous HSCT (n = 7). Assay values were reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Log transformation converted MFI to clinically relevant measures (ie, pg/mL). We searched for potential markers of transplant complications by using mixed treatment by subject analysis of variance. Global cytokine secretion in HSCT recipients was significantly lower than in concurrent control patients (n = 11). Coincident with the nadir in WBC count, the concentration of many cytokines declined further by the second and third week. All analytes (except monokine induced by gamma interferon [MIG]) subsequently rebounded by week 4 (coincident with engraftment and recovery of WBC count) but often still remained well below control levels. Concurrent with the collective nadir of multiple cytokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GRO-a), and leptin surged during weeks 2 to 4. High levels of leptin persisted throughout the 100 post-transplant days. Also during weeks 2 to 4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and IL-6 surged in children with complications but not in those without complications. The peak in HGF was more pronounced in veno-occlusive disease (VOD). HGF and IL-6 secretion rose at least 2 weeks before the clinical diagnosis of VOD or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). From week 4 onward in all groups, the MFI of the cytokine resistin increased to 5 to 15 times above concurrent control. HGF has now emerged in 3 or more biomarker discovery efforts for GVHD (and in our population for VOD as well). HGF (with or without IL-6) should be investigated as a potential predictive biomarker of VOD or GVHD. Alternatively, the hyperinflammatory "signature" provided by a multicytokine assay may be predictive.

KEYWORDS:

Bone marrow transplantation; Cytokines; Graft-versus-host disease; Hepatocyte growth factor; Veno-occlusive disease

PMID:
24316459
PMCID:
PMC4157600
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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