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J Hazard Mater. 2014 Jan 15;264:303-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.11.031. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Differential cytotoxic effects of gold nanoparticles in different mammalian cell lines.

Author information

1
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan; Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan.
2
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.
3
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address: smchuang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess unique properties that have been exploited in several medical applications. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental safety of AuNPs is imperative for use of these nanomaterials. Here, we describe the impacts of AuNPs in various mammalian cell models using an automatic and dye-free method for continuous monitoring of cell growth based on the measurement of cell impedance. Several well-established cytotoxicity assays were also used for comparison. AuNPs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell growth. This inhibitory effect was associated with apoptosis induction in Vero cells but not in MRC-5 or NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, cDNA microarray analyses in MRC-5 cells supported the involvement of DNA damage and repair responses, cell-cycle regulation, and oxidative stress in AuNP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Moreover, autophagy appeared to play a role in AuNPs-induced attenuation of cell growth in NIH3T3 cells. In this study, we present a comprehensive overview of AuNP-induced cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian cell lines, comparing several cytotoxicity assays. Collectively, these assays offer convincing evidence of the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and support the value of a systematic approach for analyzing the toxicology of nanoparticles.

KEYWORDS:

AuNPs; Cell-impedance measurement; Cytotoxicity; Gold nanoparticles; In vitro assays

PMID:
24316248
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.11.031
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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