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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;160:66-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2013.11.009. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Responses of hepatic metallothioneins and apoptotic activity in Carassius auratus gibelio witness a release of cobalt and zinc from waterborne nanoscale composites.

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Ternopil National Pedagogical University (TNPU), Ternopil, Ukraine; I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine.
Ternopil National Pedagogical University (TNPU), Ternopil, Ukraine.
Lviv National Polytechnic University (LNPU), Lviv, Ukraine.
Institute of Cell Biology (ICB), NAS of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine. Electronic address:


The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of fish Carassius auratus tissues to release cobalt (Co) and zinc (Zn) cations present in the applied Co- and Zn-containing nanoscale composites (NCs). Male fish was subjected to 14day long action of Co- and Zn-NCs, as well as of Co(2+) and Zn(2+) or polymeric substance (PS) used for the NC preparation and derived from the vinylpyrrolidone. 50μg∙L(-1) of Co and 100μg∙L(-1) of Zn were applied either as a salt or a nanocomposite. Both Co and Co-NC increased (3.1 and 2.3 times, respectively) concentration of total Co, metallothionein-related Co (3.7 and 6.6 times, respectively) and thiols (by 71 and 95%, respectively), and caspase-3 activity (2.2 and 3.7 times, respectively) in the fish liver. At the same time, Co and Co-NC decreased glutathione level (1.8 and 1.9 times, respectively) and activated vitellogenesis (5.1 and 9.9 times, respectively) in the fish liver. Both Zn and Zn-NC increased markedly concentrations of metallothionein-related Zn (2.4 and 2.9 times, respectively) and Cu (2.8 and 3.2 times, respectively), and decreased metallothionein-related thiol (2.5 and 4.2 times, respectively), oxyradical (by 30.4 and 44.2%, respectively), and caspase-3 (3.0 and 5.3 times, respectively) levels in the fish liver. These peculiarities are common for metal and metal-NC and witness a release of metal from NS in fish organism. The differences in the levels of DNA strand breaks, biotransformation enzymes and total Zn levels in the liver were dependent on the kind of exposure.


Apoptosis; Carassius auratus gibelio; Cobalt; Cytotoxicity; Metallothioneins; Oxidative stress; Vinylpyrrolidone-derived nanoscale composite; Zinc

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