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Lancet. 2014 Mar 22;383(9922):1068-83. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62154-6. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future.

Author information

1
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: skahn@uw.edu.
2
Diabetes Division, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

Glucose metabolism is normally regulated by a feedback loop including islet β cells and insulin-sensitive tissues, in which tissue sensitivity to insulin affects magnitude of β-cell response. If insulin resistance is present, β cells maintain normal glucose tolerance by increasing insulin output. Only when β cells cannot release sufficient insulin in the presence of insulin resistance do glucose concentrations rise. Although β-cell dysfunction has a clear genetic component, environmental changes play an essential part. Modern research approaches have helped to establish the important role that hexoses, aminoacids, and fatty acids have in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and the potential role of changes in the microbiome. Several new approaches for treatment have been developed, but more effective therapies to slow progressive loss of β-cell function are needed. Recent findings from clinical trials provide important information about methods to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and some of the adverse effects of these interventions. However, additional long-term studies of drugs and bariatric surgery are needed to identify new ways to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce the harmful effects of this disease.

PMID:
24315620
PMCID:
PMC4226760
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62154-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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