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J Pediatr. 2014 Apr;164(4):906-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.10.068. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Clinical management of youth with gender dysphoria in Vancouver.

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Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



To describe patient characteristics at presentation, treatment, and response to treatment in youth with gender dysphoria.


A retrospective chart review of 84 youth with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria seen at BC Children's Hospital from 1998-2011.


Of the 84 patients, 45 (54%) identified as female-to-male (FtM), 37 (44%) as male-to-female (MtF), and 2 (2%) as natal males who were undecided. Median age of presentation was 16.9 years (range 11.4-19.8 years) and 16.6 years (range 12.3-22.5 years) for FtM and MtF youth, respectively. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment was prescribed in 27 (32%) patients. One FtM patient developed sterile abscesses with leuprolide acetate; he was switched to triptorelin and tolerated this well. Cross-sex hormones were prescribed in 63 of 84 patients (39 FtM vs 24 MtF, P < .02). Median age at initiation of testosterone injections in FtM patients was 17.3 years (range 13.7-19.8 years); median age at initiation of estrogen therapy in MtF patients was 17.9 years (range 13.3-22.3 years). Three patients stopped cross-sex hormones temporarily due to psychiatric comorbidities (2 FtM) and distress over androgenic alopecia (1 FtM). No severe complications were noted in patients treated with testosterone or estrogen.


Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and/or cross-sex hormones, in collaboration with transgender-competent mental health professionals, is an intervention that appears to be appropriate in carefully selected youth with gender dysphoria. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the safety of these treatments in this age group.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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