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Urology. 2014 Feb;83(2):376-8. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2013.10.018. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

Primary cryosurgery for clinically localized prostate cancer--do perioperative tumor characteristics correlate with post-treatment biopsy results?

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Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL.
Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL. Electronic address:



To investigate the rate and predictive factors of positive post-treatment biopsy in men treated with primary cryosurgery for localized prostate cancer.


A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated with primary cryosurgery at a single institution between 1999 and 2012. Perioperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, and number of positive preoperative biopsy cores were obtained and correlated with postoperative biopsy results. Patients were stratified according to the risk classification system of D'Amico to low-, intermediate-, or high-risk groups.


Sixty-five men were treated with primary cryosurgery, and 57 of 65 (88%) of them underwent postoperative biopsy on average 9 months after the treatment. Eleven of 57 patients (19%) were found to have persistent tumor on post-treatment biopsy. Men who had positive biopsy had significantly higher perioperative PSA levels than men who had negative biopsy (preoperative PSA 12.5 vs 6.2, P = .002; post-operative PSA nadir 4.3 vs 0.71, P = .005); however, no independent predictor was found on a multivariate analysis. Gleason score and number of positive preoperative biopsy cores did not predict tumor persistence. Positive biopsy results were found more often in the intermediate- and high-risk patients, although this was not statistically significant (low risk 9%, intermediate risk 20%, and high risk 27%).


Perioperative PSA levels, Gleason score, or number of positive pretreatment biopsy cores do not predict failure after primary cryosurgery for clinically localized prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that physicians, who offer primary cryosurgery to patients with localized prostate cancer, should consider offering post-treatment biopsy to patients to assure adequate cancer control.

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