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Dermatol Online J. 2013 Nov 15;19(11):20392.

Urea: a comprehensive review of the clinical literature.

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1
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Urea is an organic compound that has been used clinically for dermatological diseases for more than a century. Urea is a potent emollient and keratolytic agent, making urea an effective monotherapy for conditions associated with dry and scaly skin. A systematic review of the literature is needed to provide clinicians with evidence-based applications of urea in the treatment of dermatological diseases.

METHODS:

A PubMed search was conducted using the term "urea" combined with "skin," "ichthyosis," "psoriasis," "xerosis," "emollient," "onychomycosis," "dermatitis," and "avulsion." A total of 81 publications met inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Treatment indication(s), test agents, number of subjects, treatment protocols, results, and side effects were recorded.

RESULTS:

Effective treatment with urea has been reported for the following conditions: ichthyosis, xerosis, atopic dermatitis/eczema, contact dermatitis, radiation induced dermatitis, psoriasis/seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, tinea pedis, keratosis, pruritus, and dystrophic nails. Furthermore, urea has been used with other medications as a penetration enhancing agent. Mild irritation is the most common adverse event, proving urea to be a safe and tolerable topical drug without systemic toxicity.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION:

Urea is a safe, effective dermatologic therapy with wide-ranging clinical utility and minimal, non-systemic side effects. In order to optimize patient care, dermatologists should be well informed with regards to urea's indications and efficacy.

PMID:
24314769
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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