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PLoS One. 2013 Dec 3;8(12):e81814. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081814. eCollection 2013.

Polarized regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β is important for glioma cell invasion.

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  • 1Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

Glioma malignancy greatly depends on its aggressive invasion. The establishment of cell polarity is an important initial step for cell migration, which is essential for cell-directional translocation. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell polarity formation in glioma cell invasion remains limited. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has a critical role in the formation of cell polarity. We therefore investigated whether localized GSK-3β, a subtype of GSK-3, is important for glioma cell invasion. We reported here that the localized phosphorylation of GSK-3β at the Ser9 (pSer9-GSK-3β) was critical for glioma cell invasion. Scratching glioma cell monolayer up-regulated pSer9-GSK-3β specifically at the wound edge. Inhibition of GSK-3 impaired the cell polarity and reduced the directional persistence of cell migration. Consistently, down-regulation of GSK-3α and 3β by specific small interfering RNAs inhibited glioma cell invasion. Over-expressing wild-type or constitutively active forms of GSK-3β also inhibited the cell invasion. These results indicated the polarized localization of GSK-3 regulation in cell migration might be also important for glioma cell migration. Further, EGF regulated both GSK-3α and 3β, but only pSer9-GSK-3β was enriched at the leading edge of scratched glioma cells. Up- or down-regulation of GSK-3β inhibited EGF-stimulated cell invasion. Moreover, EGF specifically regulated GSK-3β, but not GSK-3α, through atypical PKC pathways. Our results indicated that GSK-3 was important for glioma cell invasion and localized inhibition of GSK-3β was critical for cell polarity formation.

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