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PLoS One. 2013 Nov 27;8(11):e79324. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079324. eCollection 2013.

A randomized cross-over trial of the postprandial effects of three different diets in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets.

OBJECTIVE:

To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM.

METHODS:

A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision.

RESULTS:

Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC). The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 ± 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 ± 5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS:

The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01522157 NCT01522157.

PMID:
24312178
PMCID:
PMC3842308
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0079324
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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