Send to

Choose Destination
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Feb;34(2):331-337. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.302586. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Genetic reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 rescues aberrant angiogenesis caused by epsin deficiency.

Author information

Cardiovascular Biology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.
Cell Biology Department, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis, and University of Münster, Faculty of Medicine, Münster, Germany.
Contributed equally

Erratum in

  • Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Apr;34(4):e7.



We previously showed that endothelial epsin deficiency caused elevated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and enhanced VEGF signaling, resulting in aberrant tumor angiogenesis and reduced tumor growth in adult mice. However, direct evidence demonstrating that endothelial epsins regulate angiogenesis specifically through VEGFR2 downregulation is still lacking. In addition, whether the lack of epsins causes abnormal angiogenesis during embryonic development remains unclear.


A novel strain of endothelial epsin-deleted mice that are heterozygous for VEGFR2 (Epn1(fl/fl); Epn2(-/-); Flk(fl/+); iCDH5 Cre mice) was created. Analysis of embryos at different developmental stages showed that deletion of epsins caused defective embryonic angiogenesis and retarded embryo development. In vitro angiogenesis assays using isolated primary endothelial cells (ECs) from Epn1(fl/fl); Epn2(-/-); iCDH5 Cre (EC-iDKO) and Epn1(fl/fl); Epn2(-/-); Flk(fl/+); iCDH5 Cre (EC-iDKO-Flk(fl/+)) mice demonstrated that VEGFR2 reduction in epsin-depleted cells was sufficient to restore normal VEGF signaling, EC proliferation, EC migration, and EC network formation. These findings were complemented by in vivo wound healing, inflammatory angiogenesis, and tumor angiogenesis assays in which reduction of VEGFR2 was sufficient to rescue abnormal angiogenesis in endothelial epsin-deleted mice.


Our results provide the first genetic demonstration that epsins function specifically to downregulate VEGFR2 by mediating activated VEGFR2 internalization and degradation and that genetic reduction of VEGFR2 level protects against excessive angiogenesis caused by epsin loss. Our findings indicate that epsins may be a potential therapeutic target in conditions in which tightly regulated angiogenesis is crucial, such as in diabetic wound healing and tumors.


angiogenesis; epsin; receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center