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Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014 Jan;14(1):423. doi: 10.1007/s11910-013-0423-7.

Recent advances in moyamoya disease: pathophysiology and treatment.

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Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, UMC Utrecht, Postbus 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands,


Moyamoya disease is a progressive intracranial arteriopathy characterized by bilateral stenosis of the distal portion of the internal carotid artery and the proximal anterior and middle cerebral arteries, resulting in transient ischemic attacks or strokes. The pathogenesis of moyamoya disease remains unresolved, but recent advances have suggested exciting new insights into a genetic contribution as well as into other pathophysiological mechanisms. Treatment that may halt progression of the disease or even reverse the intracranial arteriopathy is yet to be found. There are strong indications that neurosurgical intervention, through direct, indirect, or combined revascularization surgery, can reduce the risk of ischemic stroke and possibly also cognitive dysfunction by improving cerebral perfusion, although randomized clinical trials have not been performed. Many questions regarding the indication for and timing of surgery remain unanswered. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the pathogenesis and treatment of moyamoya disease.

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