Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Cancers (Basel). 2011 Jul 22;3(3):3002-17. doi: 10.3390/cancers3033002.

Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity).

Author information

1
Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123, Sudan. alfarouk@hala-alfarouk.org.

Abstract

Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center