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Surv Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul-Aug;59(4):414-33. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2013.10.002. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Vision function abnormalities in Alzheimer disease.

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The Roskamp Institute, Sarasota, Florida; Department of Ophthalmology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:
The Roskamp Institute, Sarasota, Florida.


Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive, age-related debilitating condition that is a growing public health problem in the developed world. Visual system abnormalities in AD were recognized in the early 1970s, but were initially considered to be of strictly cortical origin. Studies in the past 20 years reveal that all parts of the visual system may be affected, including the optic nerve and the retina. Some aspects of this involvement are still not well understood and are the subjects of intensive research. We summarize and focus on findings that may be of more practical interest to the ophthalmologist.


Alzheimer disease; early diagnosis; electrophysiology; humans; imaging; optic nerve; pathophysiology; psychophysics; retina

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