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J Affect Disord. 2014 Mar;156:8-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.11.007. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: mbhy@unimelb.edu.au.
2
Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in young people. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 12-18 years age range, when the first onset for these disorders peaks. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required.

METHODS:

Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in young people which parents can potentially modify.

RESULTS:

We identified 181 articles altogether, with 140 examining depression, 17 examining anxiety problems, and 24 examining both outcomes. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome.

LIMITATIONS:

Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalizability across cultures and to younger or adult children, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and anxiety include less warmth, more inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, and aversiveness; and for depression additionally, they include less autonomy granting and monitoring.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescent; Mental disorders; Parenting; Systematic review

PMID:
24308895
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2013.11.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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