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World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov 28;19(44):8160-2. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i44.8160.

Hydroxycitric acid does not promote inflammation or liver toxicity.

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Dallas L Clouatre, Glykon Technologies Group, LLC, Seattle, WA 98109, United States.


Garcinia cambogia extract (GC) with its active component consisting of hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely utilized for weight loss. Various HCA salts are available, including calcium, magnesium, potassium and mixtures of these. Experimentally, these salts exhibit different properties with some, but not all, improving glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Recently, obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The active arm reduced visceral fat, adipocyte size and serum glucose, yet purportedly also exhibited hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increased mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress. The latter findings are at odds with a large body of animal and human studies that have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of HCA. This literature shows HCA to be protective against the liver toxicity associated with ethanol and dexamethasone administration, and to maintain serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase at near normal levels. In both animal and clinical literature, elevated intakes of HCA per se have not led to signs of inflammation or hepatotoxicity. The compound has been found to reduce markers of inflammation in brain, intestines, kidney and serum.


Garcinia cambogia; Hepatic collagen; Hepatic inflammation; Hepatic oxidative stress; Hydroxycitric acid; Metabolic syndrome; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Weight loss

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