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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 May;33(5):853-60. doi: 10.1007/s10096-013-2024-4. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Emergence of NDM-producing non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. isolated from China.

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2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Rd., Hangzhou, 310009, The People's Republic of China.


One hundred and thirty-six bla OXA-51-negative strains were identified from 1,067 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (ACB complex) isolates, which were collected during October 2010 to March 2013 from 15 general hospitals in 10 cities throughout Zhejiang Province, China. Seven of the 136 bla OXA-51-negative ACB complex isolates were New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-positive, among which three were identified as A. nosocomialis and four were identified as A. pittii strains using 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) sequencing and partial RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that the seven NDM-positive isolates belonged to three clonal strains with three novel sequence types (STs). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and DNA sequence analysis of the carbapenemase and other β-lactamase genes indicated that all the isolates harbored the bla NDM-1 gene, and that only one strain of A. nosocomialis isolates harbored both bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-23. All of them were positive for bla ADC, from which three novel bla ADC genes (designated as bla ADC-69, bla ADC-70, and bla ADC-71) were detected for the first time. The presence of ISAba125 upstream of bla NDM-1 was identified through genetic environment analysis. Carbapenem resistance can be transferred from A. nosocomialis and A. pittii to Escherichia coli EC600 by the conjugation experiment. Plasmid analysis, DNA hybridization, and extraction experiments indicated that bla NDM-1 was located on a plasmid of approximately 50 kb. In conclusion, we characterized the dissemination of NDM-1-positive A. pittii strains in Zhejiang Province, China, and reported the NDM-producing A. nosocomialis for the first time.

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