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J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014 Apr;34(2):81-4. doi: 10.3109/10799893.2013.864676. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Toll-like receptors signaling in glomerular diseases.

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Department of Nephrology, Nanjing Children's Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing , China.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize microbial/vial-derived components that trigger innate immune response, which indicate these molecules play a role in host defense against infection. The infection often precedes numerous disorders including glomerular diseases (glomerulonephritis (GN)). It is reported that TLRs are also involved in the risk and progression of GN, and TLRs may be potential therapeutic targets for GN. To date, a number of studies have found that TLRs are involved in the pathogenesis of GN. There is a paucity of reviews in the literature discussing signaling pathways and gene expression for TLRs in GN. This review was performed to provide a relatively complete signaling pathway flowchart for TLRs to the investigators who were interested in the roles of TLRs in the pathogenesis of GN. In the past decades, some studies were also performed to explore the association of TLRs gene expression with the risk of GN. However, the role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of GN remains controversial. Here, the signal transduction pathways of TLRs and its role of gene expression in the pathogenesis of GN were reviewed.

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