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Physiol Rep. 2013 Aug;1(3):e00071. doi: 10.1002/phy2.71. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Regeneration of injured skeletal muscle in heat shock transcription factor 1-null mice.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Kawasaki, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to investigate a role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated stress response during regeneration of injured soleus muscle by using HSF1-null mice. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into the left muscle of male HSF1-null and wild-type mice under anesthesia with intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium. Injection of physiological saline was also performed into the right muscle. Soleus muscles were dissected bilaterally 2 and 4 weeks after the injection. The relative weight and fiber cross-sectional area in CTX-injected muscles of HSF1-null, not of wild-type, mice were less than controls with injection of physiological saline 4 weeks after the injury, indicating a slower regeneration. Injury-related increase of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was inhibited versus wild-type mice. HSF1-deficiency generally caused decreases in the basal expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs). But the mRNA expression levels of HSP25 and HSP90α in HSF1-null mice were enhanced in response to CTX-injection, compared with wild-type mice. Significant up-regulations of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs, with greater magnitude than in wild-type mice were observed in HSF1-deficient mouse muscle. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may play a key role in the regenerating process of injured skeletal muscle. HSF1 deficiency may depress the regenerating process of injured skeletal muscle via the partial depression of increase in Pax7-positive satellite cells. HSF1-deficiency-associated partial depression of skeletal muscle regeneration might also be attributed to up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.


Heat shock proteins; heat shock transcription factor 1; proinflammatory cytokines; skeletal muscle regeneration

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