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Physiol Rep. 2013 Aug;1(3):e00053. doi: 10.1002/phy2.53. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Reinvestigation of the relationship between the amplitude of the first heart sound to cardiac dynamics.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology Dalian, China.


The relationships between the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1) and the rising rate of left ventricular pressure (LVP) concluded in previous studies were not consistent. Some researchers believed the relationship was positively linear; others stated the relationship was only positively correlated. To further investigate this relationship, this study simultaneously sampled the external phonocardiogram, electrocardiogram, and intracardiac pressure in the left ventricle in three anesthetized dogs, while invoking wide hemodynamic changes using various doses of epinephrine. The relationship between the maximum amplitude of S1 and the maximum rising rate of LVP and the relationship between the amplitude of dominant peaks/valleys and the corresponding rising rate of LVP were examined by linear, quadratic, cubic, and exponential models. The results showed that the relationships are best fit by nonlinear exponential models.


Amplitude of the first heart sound; exponential model; model fitting; rise rate of left ventricular pressure

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