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Front Immunol. 2013 Nov 18;4:382. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00382.

Dendritic cell vaccination, immune regulation, and clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer.

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Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , Little Rock, AR , USA.


Clinical optimism for dendritic cell vaccination against ovarian cancer has been tempered by the knowledge that tumors avail themselves of multiple mechanisms of immune evasion, thus blunting the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. Mechanisms of immune suppression include infiltration by regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid suppressor cell populations, expression of co-inhibitory receptors, and expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Expression of both B7-H1 and IDO are associated with differentiation and recruitment of Treg, and clinical studies have shown that each of these mechanisms correlates independently with increased morbidity and mortality in ovarian cancer patients. In sharp contrast, recent studies have indicated that Th17 cell infiltration in ovarian cancer correlates with improved patient outcomes and prolonged overall survival. Given that IDO plays a pivotal role in the balance between Treg and Th17 immunity, elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate IDO activity and immune suppression may lead to novel adjuvants to boost the clinical efficacy of dendritic cell vaccination against ovarian cancer and other malignancies.


Th17 T cells; dendritic cells; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; ovarian cancer; regulatory T cells

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