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J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Feb;10(1):34-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.09.027. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and adolescents: a literature review and clinical series.

Author information

1
Pediatric Urology Service, Dr. Exequiel González Cortés Hospital, Santiago, Chile; School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
2
Pediatric Urology Service, Dr. Exequiel González Cortés Hospital, Santiago, Chile; Clínica Santa María, Santiago, Chile.
3
St Georges Hospital, London, UK.
4
Temple Street University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
5
Pediatric Urology Service, Dr. Exequiel González Cortés Hospital, Santiago, Chile; School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Clínica Alemana, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: pejotalopez@yahoo.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is considered as male genital variant lichen sclerosis. The incidence varies greatly in different series; diagnosis is mostly clinical but histopathological confirmation is mandatory. Various treatments are described, but there is no consensus that one is the best.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A literature review was made of BXO and lichen sclerosis in boys under 18 years of age, between 1995 and 2013, analyzing demographic dates, treatments and outcomes. In addition to that, we reviewed BXO cases treated in our centers in the last 10 years.

RESULTS:

After literature review, only 13 articles matched the inclusion criteria. Analyzing those selected, the global incidence of BXO is nearly 35% among circumcised children. Described symptoms are diverse and the low index of clinical suspicion is highlighted. The main treatment is circumcision, with use of topical and intralesional steroids and immunosuppressive agents.

CONCLUSION:

BXO is a condition more common than we believe and we must be vigilant to find greater number of diagnoses to avoid future complications. The main treatment for BXO is circumcision, but as topical or intralesional treatments are now available with potentially good outcomes, they may be considered as coadjuvants.

KEYWORDS:

Balanitis xerotica obliterans; Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus; Pediatric adolescents review treatment; Phimosis

PMID:
24295833
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.09.027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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